Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Mengenal Sembilan Jenis Soal Reading UN Bahasa Inggris dan Cara Menjawabnya

Reading skill merupakan salah satu kompetensi yang harus dikuasai oleh para siswa khususnya dalam soal ujian nasional pasalnya soal reading memiliki komposisi yang paling banyak dibanding soal lainnya. Dalam hal ini para siswa harus menyiapkan dengan benar jauh- jauh hari sebelum ujian dilaksanakan.
Mengenal jenis- jenis pertanyaan reading adalah satu hal yang mesti dipersiapkan pertama kali untuk membekali anda dalam menghadapi soal- soal reading. Nah, pada post atau tulisan kali ini, kami akan membahas mengenai jenis- jenis pertanyaan seputar reading text.  Dan seperti apa, jenis- jenis pertanyaan tersebut, berikut ulasannya.
Ilustrasi ujian
1. Gambaran Umum
Suatu bacaan ( dialog atau bacaan jenis lainnya) pasti membicarakan sesuatu. Bila kita membahas tentang apa suatu bacaan tersebut, maka kita membicarakan gambaran umum atau topik sebuah teks. Ada bermacam teks yang sudah kita kenal sebelumnya seperti procedure, descriptive, report, narrative, recount, news items, exposition, discussion, explanation, dan sebagainya. Beberapa contoh soal yang merujuk pada gambaran umum adalah sebagai berikut.
  • The text tell us about ....
  • What is the text about?
  • The text tells/ describes us about ....
  • What is the topic of the text above?
  • The text mainly discusses ....
Untuk menjawab pertanyaan seputar gambaran umum, kita bisa menggunakan strategi yaitu
  • Melihat pada judul
  • Menghitung kata benda atau frasa kata benda yang dijadikan topik/ bahasan/ idde utama.
  • Temukan pikiran utama tiap- tiap paragraf, utamanya pada paragraf awal. Pikiran utama terkandung dalam kalimat utama dan kalimat utama terdapat pada awal paragraf.
Berikut contoh teks dengan pertanyaan gambaran umum.

Last holiday my friends and I went to Bali for a field trip. We went there by bus. When we arrived in Tuban, the bus stopped at a restaurant for a rest. My friends and  I got off the bus to have meal for lunch. Then, I went to the toilet. It took only a few minutes.
When I came out again, the bus I rode was not there. It had left! I looked for my friends around the restaurant but they were not there too. I felt shocked and confused. I  didn’t know what I had to do. Then I asked the security of the restaurant about the bus and he said that the bus had left about ten minutes ago. I thought that the bus had left when I was in the toilet.
I tried to call my friends one by one but none was answer my phone. I couldn’t do anything but pray and hope. After several minutes,  the bus came back. One of my friends knew that I was not in the bus and  told   the bus driver that I was left in the restaurant. 
Then I got on the bus and walked to my seat. I was so embarrassed when all of my friends looked and laughed at me. I thought it was my unforgettable experience in my life.  

What does the story mainly tell us about?
A. The writer and his friends enjoyed their trip to Bali
B. The writer was left by the bus on his trip
C. The writer went for a field trip by bus in his holiday
D. The writer called his friends  but none of them answered
E. The writer arrived in Tuban for a rest

2. Pikiran Utama (main ideas of paragraph)
Bacaan umumnya dibangun dari sekumpulan paragraf; paragraf dibuat dari sekumpulan kalimat walaupun terkadang hanya terdiri atas satu kalimat; dan kalimat dibangun ddari sekumpulan kata- kata, frasa dan anak kalimat. Tipe soal yang menunjukkan pikiran utama addalah sebagai berikut:
  • What is the main idea of paragraph 1?
  • Paragraph four tells us about ....
  • What is the main idea of the third paragraph?
Adapun strategi menjawabnya adalah sebagai berikut.
Dalam sebuah paragraf biasanya terdapat satu topik atau apa yang dibahas dan suatu pokok pikiran yang biasanya dinyatakan dalam bentuk kalimat utama (topik sentence). Pokok pikiran menceritakan kepada pembaca ide dari si penulis tentang topik tersebut.
  • Bila pokok pikiran atau kalimat utama terdapat di awal paragraf disebut deduktif.
  • Bila pokok pikiran atau kalimat utama terdapat di akhir paragraf disebut induktif.
  • Bila pokok pikiran atau kalimat utama terdapat di awal dan akhir paragraf maka bisa disimpulkan.
Berikut contoh dari pertanyaan seputar pikiran utama.

The Mississippi River is the most important river in North America. It provided a major highway for early explorers of North America. Many cities grew up along it. Furs and farm goods traveled from these settlements down the river to markets. Today, more freight travels on the Mississippi than on any other waterway within the continent.
The Mississippi is known as the Father of Waters. It splits the United States from north to south in the nation’s heartland. The Mississippi gathers waters from rivers that lie between the Appalachian Mountains in the East and the Rocky Mountains in the West. The Ohio River flows into the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois. The Missouri River empties into it near St. Louis, Missouri. The Illinois and Arkansas are other major rivers that flow into the Mississippi. 
The Mississippi is the largest river in North America. This means that it carries more water than any other North American river. But the Mississippi is not the longest river. That honor goes to the Missouri. The Missouri is 200 miles (320 kilometers) longer. The Mississippi starts at Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota. It flows southward through the central United States for 2,340 miles (3,770 kilometers). In southeastern Louisiana, the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, the Mississippi borders ten states.
A number of important cities are located on the Mississippi River. Before railroads and roads were available, these cities shipped and received goods by keel boats, steamboats, and other vessels on the river. Today, coal, oil, grain, and other goods travel on barges along the river. The biggest cities along the Mississippi are St. Paul and Minneapolis in Minnesota, St. Louis in Missouri, Memphis in Tennessee, and New Orleans in Louisiana. Native Americans lived along the Mississippi before European settlers arrived. Algonquian Indians gave the river its name. The name means “big water” in the Algonquian language. 
Adapted from : Article in Microsoft Encarta; The Mississippi River

What is the main idea of the third paragraph?  
A. The Mississippi is one of a crucial river in America 
B. Many rivers that lie between Appalachian Mountains in the East and the Rocky Mountains in the West  gather to The Mississippi river
C. The major river that flow into the Mississippi
D. The Mississipi becomes the largest river in North America
E. There are many important cities are located on the Mississippi river 


3. Informasi tertentu (specific information)
Informasi tertentu merupakan informasi yang tertera jelas atau tertulis jelas dalam bacaan dan dapat diidentifikasi dengan cepat. Informasi ini meliputi informasi seperti nama orang, tempat, jumlah, warna, cara, waktu, hari, tanggal dan lainnya. Ciri- ciri pertanyaan ini adalah dengan menggunakan WH Question seperti What (apa/ apakah), who (siapa), where (dimana), when (kapan), what day (hari apa), whom (siapa), how (bagaimana), dan seterusnya.

Cara menjawab
Untuk menemukan informasi tertentu dengan cepat, dapat dilakukan dengan cara mengambil salah satu kata penting atau yang sama artinya di ddalam pertanyaan, lalu mencari kata tersebut dalam bacaan dan menemukan informasi yang terkait yang mungkin berada setelah atau sebelum kata penting tersebut. 

Contoh soal informasi tertentu.

Because of construction work, Park street Station is closed. All passengers for Park Street Station will have to exit the train at Center station. Bus service is available at Center station to carry passengers to Park Street. After exiting the station, please line up the curb for a bus. Please avoid crowding. Buses will leave frequently, but there may be some delays because of street traffic. we are sorry for the inconvenience. The station is scheduled to reopen in three weeks. thank you for your cooperation.

Where would this announcement be posted?
A. In a railway station
B. In a restroom
C. In a bus station
D. In a park
E. In an airport

4. Informasi Rinci (detailed information)
Ialah informasi yang baru bisa diketahui setelah kita membaca suatu teks dengan ciri rinci atau seksama. Tipe soalnya adalah sebagai berikut .
  • Which sentence is correct based on the text above?
  • Which statement is incorrect about ... ?
  • Which is true according to the text?
  • Which of the following sentences is TRUE based on the text?
Cara menjawab:
  • Cek satu persatu jawaban yang disediakan
  • Periksa paraphrase yang ada dalam teks dan pilihan jawaban

Inilah contoh soal informasi rinci.

Two years ago I had a chance to fly in an aeroplane. This was my first flight so I was very nervous. I feared that sorts of accidents might happen on the way. I thought that the engine might burst and come down with a crash. Sometimes I was afraid that the pilot might make a mistake and I had to pay for it with my life.
Soon after I had seated myself there, the sound of the engines rose to a roar as moved off, and gradually its speed. Then it was with a feeling of surprise I noticed that the ground was at some distance beneath me. As the plane went higher and higher up in the air, a strange sensation ran through my body. Soon, the motion was easy. The fear which overtook me at the time of flight was no more in my heart. Now I was quite bold in the air.
This did not mean that I felt the worse for it. I felt as comfortable in the aeroplane as I used to feel in my car. I felt no sense of insecurity. I did not occur to me even for a moment that my life could ever be in danger. The machine flew as smoothly in the air as a boat glides down a peaceful stream.
When the plane was at sufficient height, I looked through the pane of the window. The earth seemed to be “falling off” from us. The big building looked like a small spots of beauty. The sky was clear. Everything looked new and strange. 
The most beautiful thing was the scene around me. I saw nothing but was surrounded by pure air. Occasionally I saw clouds floating here and there. 
We flew over the roofs of many houses. At one place we were very near the roof and I felt that we were going to touch it.  After flying for a long time, we finally touche the earth. The journey was so pleasant and comfortable that I could not forget it.

Adapted from : http://www.4essay.blogspot.com
What is NOT true according to the text?
A. The writer felt worried before getting on the plane
B. The writer was afraid of flying because he had traumatic accident caused by the pilot’s mistake
C. The writer felt relief after the plane went higher
D. The weather was fine when the writer flew by plane
E. The writer thought his first flight was his memorable experience 

5. Informasi tersirat (not clearly stated information)
Informasi tersirat yaitu suatu kesimpulan yang logis/ masuk akal yang terdapat dalam bacaan atau dengan menggunakan pengetahuan yang kita miliki atau keduanya. Ciri- ciri dari soal informasi tersirat adalah sebagai berikut .
  • From the text above, we know that ....
  • What can we conclude from the text?
  • From the text above we can conclude that .....
  • The following statements are true about ..., except ....
  • From the text above,it shows that ....

Cara menjawabnya,
  • Periksa satu persatu pilihan jawaban yang disediakan
  • Paraphrase.
Contoh soal Informasi tersirat.

Because of construction work, Park Street Station is closed. All passengers for Park Street Station will have to exit the train at Center Station. Bus service is available at Center station to carry passengers to Park Street. After exiting the station, please line up the curb for a bus. Please avoid crowding. Buses will leave frequently, but there may be some delays because of street traffic. We are sorry for the inconvenience. The station is scheduled to reopen in three weeks. Thank you for your cooperation.

From the text we may know that ….
A. Park Street Station will be closed for a month
B. Passengers are suggested to take bus after exiting the station
C. Because of street traffic, passengers will be late to work for hours
D. Bus Services is available once a day
E. Passengers are allowed to wait for the bus everywhere

6. Rujukan Kata
Saat kita membaca sebuah teks, kadang kita menemukan kata- kata ganti seperti she, he, it, they, we, us, ours, my, your atau kata lain yang mengganti orang- orang atau benda- benda tertentu, seperti the boy, the man, one, this, that, these, those. Dalam teks kita biasa menemukan kata- kata tersebut dalam pertanyaan seputar rujukan kata atau reference. Biasanya ciri- ciri pertanyaan ini adalah sebagai berikut .
  • ... What does the underlined word refer to?
  • ...The underlinedd word refers to ....
  • ... What does the word "she" refer to?
  • ... The word I refer to ...
Cara menjawab
Rujukan kata biasanya terdapat pada kalimat sebelum kata ganti tersebut dan ada pula yang terletak setelah kata ganti itu.

Contoh soal rujukan kata

Pramoedya Ananta Toer, also spelled Pramudya Ananta Tur (born February 20, 1925, Blora, Java, Dutch East Indies (now in Indonesia)—died April 30, 2006, Jakarta, Indonesia), Javanese novelist and short-story writer, the pre-eminent prose writer of post independence Indonesia.
Pramoedya, the son of a schoolteacher, went to Jakarta while a teenager and worked as a typist there under the Japanese occupation during World War II. In 1945, at the end of the war, when Indonesia declared its independence and revolted against renewed Dutch colonial rule, he joined the nationalists, working in radio and producing an Indonesian-language magazine before he was arrested by the Dutch authorities in 1947. He wrote his first published novel, Perburuan (1950; The Fugitive), during a two-year term in a Dutch prison camp (1947–49). That work describes the flight of an anti-Japanese rebel back to his home in Java.
After Indonesian independence was recognized by the Netherlands in 1949, Pramoedya produced a stream of novels and short stories that established his reputation. The novel Keluarga gerilja (1950; “Guerrilla Family”) chronicles the tragic consequences of divided political sympathies in a Javanese family during the Indonesian Revolution against Dutch rule, while Mereka jang dilumpuhkan (1951; “The Paralyzed”) depicts the odd assortment of inmates Pramoedya became acquainted with in the Dutch prison camp. The short stories collected in Subuh (1950; “Dawn”) and Pertjikan revolusi (1950; “Sparks of Revolution”) are set during the Indonesian Revolution, while those in Tjerita dari Blora (1952; “Tales of Bora”) depict Javanese provincial life in the period of Dutch rule. The sketches in Tjerita dari Djakarta (1957; “Tales of Jakarta”) examine the strains and injustices Pramoedya perceived within Indonesian society after independence had been achieved. In these early works Pramoedya evolved a rich prose style that incorporated Javanese everyday speech and images from classical Javanese culture.
By the late 1950s Pramoedya had become sympathetic toward the Indonesian Communist Party, and after 1958 he abandoned fiction for essays and cultural criticism that reflect a left-wing viewpoint. By 1962 he had become closely aligned with communist-sponsored cultural groups. As a result, he was jailed by the army in the course of its bloody suppression of a communist coup in 1965. During his imprisonment he wrote a series of four historical novels that further enhanced his reputation. Two of these, Bumi manusia (1980; This Earth of Mankind) and Anak semua bangsa (1980; Child of All Nations), met with great critical and popular acclaim in Indonesia after their publication, but the government subsequently banned them from circulation, and the last two volumes of the tetralogy, Jejak langkah (1985; Footsteps) and Rumah kaca (1988; House of Glass), had to be published abroad. These late works comprehensively depict Javanese society under Dutch colonial rule in the early 20th century. In contrast to Pramoedya’s earlier works, they were written in a plain, fast-paced narrative style.

source text: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pramoedya-Ananta-Toer

“…and popular acclaim in Indonesia after their publication, but the government subsequently banned them from circulation, and the last two volumes of the tetra logy, …” (paragraph 4)
The underlined word refers to …. 
A. A series of four historical novels 
B. Essays and cultural criticism 
C. Short stories 
D. Bumi Manusia and Anak Semua Bangsa
E. Pramoedya’s early works

7. Makna Kata (deducing meaning of words from context)
Pertanyaan seputar makna kata membutuhkan kemampuan dan ketrampilan menebak arti suatu kata yang belum diketahui artinya dengan cara menafsirkn arti kata tersebut berdasarkan kata- kata yang anda tahu artinya atau berdasarkan konteks kalimat atau bacaan, kemudian menyimpulkan kira- kira apakah arti dari kata tersebut. hal ini sangatlah penting karena satu kata bisa memiliki banyak makna.
Contoh soal seputar makna kata
  • The underlined word has similar meaning with ....
  • The underlined word has the same meaning as ....
  • what does the underlined word mean?
  • The closest meaning of the underlined word is ....
  • The synonym of ... is ....
  • The word of " ..." can be replaced with ....
  • What is the antonym of the underlined phrase?
Cara menjawab :
  • Menebak kata berdasarkan konteks nya.
Contoh soal

Continued progress in advanced technology is not necessary. Already the technical progress in our world has caused severe pollution in the air and in the water. Although the technical progress in previous years has been helpful, recent technology has significantly increased pollution. Another reason to stop technical progress is that many inventions which were developed for good causes are now also used for powerful weapons to have been found have serious side effects. For example, pesticide put inside particle boards to proscribe termites has now be found to be toxic to human life. Technology does not always bring good effects; for example, computers do much work faster than man, but then man loses his job to a machine. Because no man can guarantee that technology will have only good effects and will be used only for the benefit of man, we should delay the continued development of technology.

“For example, pesticide put inside particle boards to proscribe termites has now be found to be toxic to human life”
What does the underlined word mean?
A. prevent
B. authorize
C. allow
D. accept
E. enroll

8. Tujuan Komunikatif (purpose of the text)
Setiap teks dibuat dengan maksud tertentu yang hendak disampaikan kepada pembacanya. Beberapa contoh soal yang berkaitan dengan tujuan komunikatif teks adalah sebagai berikut.
  • The aim of the text above is ....
  • What does the writer write the message for?
  • The purpose of the text above is to ....
  • What is the goal of the text?
  • The text is written to .....
Cara menjawab.
Setiap teks memiliki tujuan tersendiri misalnya,
  • Descriptive = to describe
  • Report = to describe in general
  • Procedure = to explain how ...
  • Recount = to retell ....
  • Narrative = to entertain or to amuse ....
  • etc.
Contoh soal dalam teks

Two years ago I had a chance to fly in an aeroplane. This was my first flight so I was very nervous. I feared that sorts of accidents might happen on the way. I thought that the engine might burst and come down with a crash. Sometimes I was afraid that the pilot might make a mistake and I had to pay for it with my life.
Soon after I had seated myself there, the sound of the engines rose to a roar as moved off, and gradually its speed. Then it was with a feeling of surprise I noticed that the ground was at some distance beneath me. As the plane went higher and higher up in the air, a strange sensation ran through my body. Soon, the motion was easy. The fear which overtook me at the time of flight was no more in my heart. Now I was quite bold in the air.
This did not mean that I felt the worse for it. I felt as comfortable in the aeroplane as I used to feel in my car. I felt no sense of insecurity. I did not occur to me even for a moment that my life could ever be in danger. The machine flew as smoothly in the air as a boat glides down a peaceful stream.
When the plane was at sufficient height, I looked through the pane of the window. The earth seemed to be “falling off” from us. The big building looked like a small spots of beauty. The sky was clear. Everything looked new and strange. 
The most beautiful thing was the scene around me. I saw nothing but was surrounded by pure air. Occasionally I saw clouds floating here and there. 
We flew over the roofs of many houses. At one place we were very near the roof and I felt that we were going to touch it.  After flying for a long time, we finally touche the earth. The journey was so pleasant and comfortable that I could not forget it.

Adapted from : http://www.4essay.blogspot.com
What is the purpose of the text?
A. To describe the writer’s experience in his first flight
B. To persuade the readers to fly by aeroplane
C. To inform the readers about condition in an aeroplane
D. To retell the writer’s experience in his first flight
E. To show the writer’s opinion about flying by aeroplane

9. Nilai Moral (moral value)
Nilai moral suatu teks dapat dipahami dari kata- kata yang digunakan di akhir teks dan biasanya kata- kata itu menunjukkan perbuatan- perbuatan yang patut diteladani atau diperhatikan. Namun kadang- kadang pada akhir cerita tidak menunjukkan secara langsung nilai moralnya sehingga kita harus menarik suatu kesimpulan tentang nilai moral tentang apa yang hendak disampaikan.

Contoh soal
  • What can you learn from the story above?
  • What is the moral value of the story?
Cara menjawab :
  • Penyimpulan tiap- yiap paragraf
  • Beberapa ditemukan dalam paragraf terakhir.
Contoh Soal dalam Teks

Once upon a time Sammy and his sister Marie visited their grandparents at their farm. Sammy picked up a slingshot to play with out in the woods.  He practiced in the woods but he could never hit the target.  Getting a little discouraged, he headed back for the lunch.  As he was walking back he saw Grandma’s pet duck.
Just out of impulse, he let the slingshot fly which hit the duck square in the head and killed it. He was shocked and grieved. In a panic, he hid the dead duck in the pile of woods.  Marie had seen it all from the window but she said nothing. After the lunch, the next day Grandma said, “Marie, let’s wash the dishes.”  Marie said, “But Grandma, Sammy told me he wanted to help in the kitchen.”
Then she whispered to Sammy, “Remember the duck?” Sammy got nervous knowing his sister knew about the duck and if he doesn’t obey, she may tell his grandparents about it.  So without saying anything he did the dishes.
Later that day, Grandpa asked if the children wanted to go fishing but Grandma said, “I’m sorry but I need Marie to help make a supper.”  Marie just smiled and said, “Well that’s all right because Sammy told me he wanted to help.”
She whispered again to Johnny, “Remember the duck?”  So Marie went fishing and Sammy stayed to help.  After several days of Marie taking advantage of Sammy, he finally couldn’t stand it any longer.  He came to Grandma and confessed that he had killed the duck.
Grandma knelt down, gave him a hug and said, “Sweetheart, I know. I was standing at the window and I saw the whole thing but because I love you, I forgave you.  I was just wondering how long you would let Marie take advantage of you.”
Source text : http://www.moralstories.org

What is the moral value of the story?
A. Practice makes perfect
B. What is bad in one case may be good in another
C. Don’t trust people easily
D. You should confess of your mistakes
E. Keep going and do the best

Demikian sembilan jenis pertanyaan atau soal reading teks dan cara menjawabnya dalam Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris. Semoga bis amemberikan manfaat bagi anda semuanya.
Salam.

Sample texts are taken from :
http://www.4essay.blogspot.com
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pramoedya-Ananta-Toer
http://www.moralstories.org