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Monday, December 7, 2015

Pengertian, Contoh dan Penggunaan Participle dalam Kalimat Bahasa Inggris

Participle merupakan bentuk kata kerja yang dikata-sifatkan, sehingga berfungsi sebagai kata sifat yang memberi sifat atau keterangan kepada Noun ( kata benda). Participle dapat pula berbentuk Continuous tense dan Perfect tense dan dalam kedua kata kerja tersebut, Participle tetap berfungsi sebagai kata kerja. Ada dua macam Participle yaitu bentuk Present Participle dan bentuk Past Participle. pada bentuk Present Participle , maka kata kerja diakhiri dengan -ing dan mempunyai makna aktif dan menunjukkan waktu sekarang misalnya working, smiling, breaking, dan sebagainya. Sedangkan Past participle bermakna pasif dan menunjukkan waktu lampau, misalnya drunken,poured, unexpected, dan sebagainya.
Secara umum, Participle dapat  digunakan bersamaan dengan auxiliary verb atau modal untuk membentuk Continuous tense, Perfect tense, maupun Passive voice.
A. Penggunaan Present Participle
1. Present Participle digunakan sebagai adjective yang ditempatkan di depan kata benda ( Noun)
Contoh :

  • The boiling water is very hot.
  • The rushing water is very dangerous.
  • In the distance we saw a running horse.
  • The waiting room is completed by many facilities such as television and display information.

2. Present Participle digunakan sebagai adjective yang bisa ditempatkan dibelakang kata benda yang mendapat keterangan sifat itu.
Contoh :

  • The Chinese people is the largest community in the world possessing a common written language. ( Bangsa China merupakan kelompok terbesar di dunia yang mempunyai bahasa persatuan yang tertulis.) atau
  • The Chinese people is the largest community in the world which possess a common written language.
  • The distance separating the two places is not very great. ( Jarak yang memisahkan kedua tempat tersebut tidak terlalu jauh) atau
  • The distance which separates the two places is not very great.

3. Bila ada dua peristiwa yang mempunyai subjek yang sama  dan terjadi pada waktu yang bersamaan ( hampir).
Contoh :

  • He rode away ; He whistled as he went.

           == He rode away whistling.
           == Whistling, He rode away.

  • When I was walking to school, I saw him there.

           == Walking school, I saw him there

  • I stood at the bus station, I was waiting for the bus.

           == I stood at the bus station, waiting for the bus.
4. Bila dua peristiwa dilakukan secara berurutan oleh subjek yang sama. Peristiwa yang paling lampau bisa menggunakan bentuk participle.
Contoh :

  • He opened the drawer and took out a revolver.

          == Opening the drawer, he took out a revolver.

  • After I had finished my work I went home.
  • Having finished my work, I went home.

5.  Bila ada dua peristiwa, kemudian peristiwa tersebut merupakan bagian, akibat dari peristiwa yang satu atau menunjukkan sebab akibat.
Contoh :

  • As he know her address, he sent her a letter.

          == Knowing her address, he sent her a letter.

  • She asked the teacher because she don't know about his explanation.

          == Not knowing about his explanation, she asked the teacher.
6. Present participle digunakan setelah beberapa kata kerja tertentu  ( verbs of perception) yaitu 

  • see
  • watch
  • smell
  • hear
  • leave
  • observe
  • feel
  • find 
  • keep
  • notice 
  • catch

Rumus untuk membetuk kalimatnya adalah sebagai berikut:
S + V + O + PRESENT PARTICIPLE + ...
Contoh :

  • I hear a girl shouting.
  • She smells something burning.

7. Present participle untuk membentuk Continuous tense
Contoh :

  • They are playing football.
  • You were doing homework when I came.
  • She has been dreaming.

B. Penggunaan Past Participle
1. Sebagai adjective
Contoh :

  • The stolen car has been found.
  • The written expressions have been mastered by him.

2. Untuk membentuk kalimat pasif
Contoh :

  • She was annoyed by some naughty boys in the park.
  • The work has been finished on time.

3. Past Participle dapat digunakan sebagaimana adverb yang menerangkan bagaimana atau mengapa sesuatu hal terjadi.
Contoh :

  • Rejected by all his friends, he decided to move to another city. ( karena ditolak oleh semua teman- temannya, dia memutuskan pindah ke kota lain)
  • Having failed to qualify as a doctor, I took up teaching. ( karena gagal dalam kualifikasi seorang dokter, saya akan tetap mengajar)

Atau
dapat pula digunakan bentuk yang mempunyai arti pasif, 
Having been + past participle
Contoh :

  • Having been warned about the bandits, he left his valuable goods at home.

          ( He had been warned ....)

  • Having been bitten twice, the postman refused deliver the letter to his house.

         ( He had been bitten twice ...)
4. Past Participle setelah kata kerja tertentu yaitu kata kerja yang mempunyai arti pasif, have, get, wish, want, see, prefer, like, find, feel, make, dsb.
Contoh :

  • I found my car covered by a dust ( Saya mendapati mobil saya tertutup debu)
  • I saw my friend bitten by a dog. ( Saya melihat teman saya digigit anjing)

5. Untuk menggantikan subjek + kata kerja pasif bila subjek tersebut disebutkans secara berulang.
Contoh :

  • She enters the room. she is accompanied by her mother.
         == She entered the room, accompanied by her mother.

  • As he was convinced that they were trying to poison him he refused to eat anything.

          == Convinced that they were trying to poison him, he refused to eat anything.

Contoh Soal dan pembahasan bentuk Participle
Soal No. 1
____ by the sudden noise, the baby woke up and cried.
A. Startled
B. In startled
C. It is startling
D. To be startling
E. Startling
Pembahasan :
Penggunaan past participle Untuk menggantikan subjek + kata kerja pasif bila subjek tersebut disebutkans secara berulang.
As the baby was startled by the sudden noise, the baby woke up and cried.
== Startled by the sudden noise, the baby woke up and cried.
Jawaban : A
=====================================================================================
Soal No. 2
____ his paper, he gave it to the teacher.
A. Being finished
B. Having been finished
C. To have finished
D. Having finished
E. To finish
Pembahasan :
Bila dua peristiwa dilakukan secara berurutan oleh subjek yang sama. Peristiwa yang paling lampau bisa menggunakan bentuk participle. (point no. 4 present participle)
After he had finished his paper, he gave it to the teacher.
== Having finished his paper, he gave it to the teacher.
Jawaban : D
=====================================================================================
Soal No. 3
Two of the ___ prisoners were caught by the police.
A. escape
B. was escaped
C. having escaped
D. was escaped
E. escaped
Pembahasan :
Fungsi Past Participle sebagai adjective yang terletak sebelum kata kerja ( Noun)
the escaped prisoners
Jawaban : E
======================================================================================
Soal No. 4
Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people ____ near airport.
A. live
B. be living
C. living
D. they lived
E. they are living
Pembahasan :
Present participle digunakan sebagai adjective yang bisa ditempatkan dibelakang kata benda yang mendapat keterangan sifat itu. (point no. 2 Present participle )
Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people which live near airport.
== Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people living near airport.
Jawaban : C
======================================================================================
Soal No. 5
____, the student prepared a report.
A. Finished his survey
B. He finished his survey
C. Having finished his survey
D. He had finished his survey
E. He has finished his survey
Pembahasan :
Bila dua peristiwa dilakukan secara berurutan oleh subjek yang sama. Peristiwa yang paling lampau bisa menggunakan bentuk participle. (point no. 4 Present participle)
After the student had finished his survey, the student prepared a report.
== Having finished his survey, the student prepared a report.
Jawaban : C
=====================================================================================
Demikian pembahasan tentang pengertian, contoh dan penggunaan participle dalam kalimat Bahasa Inggris. Semoga bisa membantu anda dalam meningkatkan keterampilan Bahasa Inggris anda. Terima kasih dan semoga bermanfaat.