Thursday, December 10, 2015

Penggunaan Elliptic and Parallel Construction Dalam Bahasa Inggris

Dalam sebuah kalimat, kadang- kadang ditemukan pengulangan kata yang sama sehingga dirasa kalimat tersebut menjadi kurang efektif atau menjadi "tidak cantik" dalam segi penulisan. Untuk menghindari hal tersebut, maka kita harus memendekkan atau bahkan menghilangkan beberapa kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. Definisi kalimat tersebut diatas disebut juga dengan kalimat elip. 
Cara Membentuk Kalimat Elip
Cara membentuk kalimat elip adalah sebagai berikut:
a.  and ...too ; and so ... ( dan ... juga; dan demikian juga ...)
   Bentuk and ...too ; and so ... digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat positif yang memiliki kesamaan. Adapun caramembentuknya bisa menggunakan kata kerja bantu ( auxiliary verb) maupun To be.
Contoh :
1) Linda is reading novel. John is reading novel.
     == Linda is reading novel and John is too.
     == Linda is reading novel and so is John.
2)  Janu can swim well. Rafi can swim well.
     == Janu can swim well and Rafi can too.
     == Janu can swim well and so can Rafi.
3) They study hard. He studies hard.
    == They study hard and he does too.
    == They study hard and so does he.
4) Bob repaired the printer. Wisnu repaired the printer
    == Bob repaired the printer and Wisnu did too.
    == Bob repaired the printer and so did Wisnu.
5) He has submitted the homework. I have submitted the homework.
    == He has submitted the homework and I have too.
    == He has submitted the homework and so have I.
6) Mr. Anwar has a new car. I have a new car.
    == Mr. Anwar has a new car and I do too.
    == Mr. Anwar has a new car and so do I.
7) She had bought a computer. He had bought a computer.
    == She had bought a computer and he had too.
    == She had bought a computer and so had he.

b.  and neither ... ; and ... either ( juga tidak)
     Bentuk and neither ... ; and ... either digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua kalimat negatif. Untuk lebih jelasnya silahkan cermati contoh berikut ini.
Contoh :
1) They aren't doing the English Club. She isn't doing the English Club.
     == They aren't joining the English Club and neither is she.
     == They aren't joining the English Club and she isn't either.
2)  He didn't do the exercise. She didn't do the exercise.
     == He didn't do the exercise and neither did she.
     == He didn't do the exercise and she didn't either.

c.  but (tetapi), whereas (sedangkan), while (sedangkan)
     Bentuk but (tetapi), whereas (sedangkan), while (sedangkan) digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang bertentangan.
Contoh :
Lisa is not watching television. Rizal is watching television.
== Lisa is not watching television but Rizal is.

d.  Both ... and ( keduanya)
Contoh :
1)   Jenny painted the wall. Jenny painted the window.
      ==  Jenny painted both the wall and the window.
2)   Mitha went to the cinema. Ann went to cinema.
      == Both Mitha and Ann went to the cinema.
3)  Yuli is in the garden. Bima is in the garden.
      == Both Yuli and Bima are in the garden.

e.  Either ... or ... ( baik... ataupun ... / salah satu ...)
Contoh :
1)   Arya is a doctor. Rita is a doctor.
      == Either Arya or Rita is a doctor.
2)   Willy forgot where he put his key. It's either in the bedroom or in the living room.
  
f.  Neither ... nor ... ( baik ... maupun ... tidak)
    Bentuk Neither ... nor ... hanya digunakan pada kalimat negatif.
Contoh :
1)   John isn't a teacher. Manda isn't a doctor.
      == Neither John nor  Manda is a doctor.
2)  He doesn't like smoking. They don't like smoking.
     == Neither he nor they like smoking.
     == Neither they nor he likes smoking.

g.  And (dan)
Contoh :
1)  Lisa writes a letter. Lisa writes a short story.
     Lisa writes a letter and short story.
2)  Mary bought a dictionary. Mary bought a novel.
     Mary bought a dictionary and a novel.

h.  Whether ... or not ( baik ... atau tidak)
Contoh :
I will give you the money whether you need it or not.

Contoh soal dan pembahasan
Soal No. 1
She was going to the cinema ____ .
A. and we aren't too
B. and we are too.
C. and so we are
D. and we were too
E. but we are
Pembahasan :
Soal tersebut berarti dia pergi ke sinema dan kita juga pergi. Dalam kalimat tersebut menggunakan pola Past Tense ( masa lampau). 
Penggunaan elip dan parallel construction dengan bentuk and ... too.
sehingga, She was going to the cinema and we were too. 
Jawaban : D
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Soal No. 2
This medical book costs very expensive and ____ .
A. so does that technical book.
B. that technical book did too.
C. neither did that technical  book.
D. that technical book didn't either
E. while that technical book didn't too.
Pembahasan :
Dari semua pilihan jawaban , maka jawaban yang paling tepat adalah jawaban 'so does that technical book', dengan penggunaan so ...
Bentuk waktu yang digunakan adalah bentuk Present Tense, dengan ciri- ciri penggunaan verb 1.
Jawaban : A
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Soal No. 3
The female students have to clean the classroom, ____
A. and so do the male students
B. and the male students do so
C. and the male students have too
D. and neither do the male students
E. but the male students are
Pembahasan :
Soal diatas bila diartikan "siswa perempuan harus membersihkan ruangan, demikian juga siswa laki- laki", maka , penggunaan so ... diterapkan dalam soal diatas. 
"The female students have to clean the classroom and so do the male students
Jawaban : A
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Soal No. 4
We don't have to return the book tomorrow, but he ____
A. has
B. had
C. did
D. do
E. does
Pembahasan :
Penggunaan but untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang bertentangan dan dalam kalimat tersebut menggunakan bentuk Present Tense sehingga,  
We don't have to return the book tomorrow, but he does.
Jawaban : E
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Soal No. 5
"I saw her this morning."
" _____ "
A. so had I
B. So did I
C. But did I
D. I do too
E. Neither did I
Pembahasan :
Pada beberapa pilihan jawaban, maka yang paling tepat adalah bentuk so did I, dengan cara menentukan bentuk waktu yang digunakan adalah entuk Past tense dengan kata kerja "saw", dan form yang paling tepat dari jawaban diatas adalah bentuk so ..., sehingga 
"so did I "
Jawaban : B

Demikian pembahasan kali ini tentang penggunaan Elliptic and Parallel Construction dalam Bahasa Inggris. Kurang lebihnya kami mohon maaf. Bila ada pertanyaan seputar pembahasan diatas, silahkan hubungi halaman kontak diatas atau silahkan isikan pada kolom komentar di bawah. Nantikan pembahasan- pembahasan kami selanjutnya. Semoga bermanfaat.