Saturday, November 18, 2017

Tips Mengerjakan Soal Bentuk Kalimat Langsung dan Kalimat Tak langsung dalam Bahasa Inggris

Dalam sebuah kalimat, untuk merubah bentuk kalimat langsung menjadi tak langsung, maka hal pertama yang kita lakukan adalah mengenali jenis  kalimat yang dalam hal ini dapat berupa;

  1. Pernyataan (Statement)
  2. Perintah ( Imperative/ request)
  3. Pertanyaan ( Questions)
English Grammar


A. Indirect Speech Statement (pernyataan)
Contoh :

  • Ali says,”I am a student.”
  • Ali says that he is  a student.

Kalimat yang tercetak tebal diatas bisa di masukkan menjadi jenis kalimat pernyataan/Statement. Untuk kalimat pernyataan/ statement, maka bisa menambahkan kata “that”. Pada kalimat pernyataan, pernyataan langsung ( Direct speech)  yang akan diubah menjadi kalimat tak langsung ( Indirect speech) tidak akan mengalami perubahan tenses jika induk kalimatnya memakai bentuk:

  1. Present Tense
  2. Present perfect Tense
  3. Future tense.

Hal itu bisa dilihat dari bentuk introductory verb -nya yaitu kata “say”. Kata tersebut menunjukkan bentuk present tense sehingga tidak akan ada perubahan tenses. 

  • She said,” They are working.”
  • === She said that they were working.

Jika induk kalimat langsung ( Direct speech) dalam bentuk past tense, maka kalimat tak langsung  ( Indirect Speech) akan mengalami perubahan tenses.

  • Rindu said,” He will study hard tomorrow.”
  • === Rindu said that he would study hard the following day.
  • He told me,” I have written a letter.”
  • === He told me that he had written a letter.
  • He told me,” I would go there if I were you.”
  • === He told me that he would have gone there if he had been me



B. Indirect Speech Imperative/ Request ( perintah/ permohonan)
Ada beberapa ketentuan untuk mengungkapkan suatu perintah atau permohonan dalam kalimat tak langsung.

  1. Menggunakan kata kerja bentuk I ( to infinitive)
  2. Tambahan kata please  untuk perintah atau permintaan yang lebih sopan.
  3. Menggunakan not + to infinitive untuk larangan
  4. Biasanya menggunakan introductory verb seperti told, ordered, asked, atau commanded

Contoh:

  • He asked me,” Open the window!”
  • === He asked me to open the window.
  • He told me,” write quickly.”
  • === He told me to write quickly.
  • She asked me,” bring my bag.”
  • === She asked me to bring her bag.


C. Indirect Speech Questions ( Pertanyaan)

a. Pertanyaan diawali dengan menggunakan kata tanya : who, what, when, where, etc.

  1. Kata tanya tetap dipakai dalam pertanyaan tak langsung
  2. Susunan kalimat dengan menggunakan kalimat pernyataan, bukan kalimat pertanyaan.
  3. Perubahan tenses tergantung dari bentuk introductory verbs nya.

Contoh:

  • Rendra said to Ani,” where are you going?”
  • === Rendra said to Ani where she was going.
  • Maria asked me,” where is your bike?”
  • === Maria asked me where my bike was.
  • He wanted to know,” How did you do this?”
  • === He wanted to know how I had done that.


b. Pertanyaan tanpa menggunakan kata tanya

  1. Penggunaan if atau whether dalam pernyataan tak langsung.
  2. Susunan pertanyaan menggunakan susunan kalimat pernyataan ( statement)

Contoh:

  • John asked me,” can you help me?”
  • === John asked me if ( whether) I could help him.
  • She asked me,” Do you have an idea?”
  • === She asked me if( whether)  I had an idea.
  • He asked me, “ are you very busy?”
  • === He asked me if ( whether)  was very busy.



D. Exclamation and Yes and No Answer

a. Exclamation ( seruan, heran, kagum) harus menjadi suatu pernyataan dalam indirect speech.
Contoh: 

  • He said,” what a beautiful hair she has!”
  • === He said that she had a beautiful hair.
  • She said,” how wonderful you are!”
  • === She said that you were wonderful.
  • She said,” what a dreadful thing!”
  • === She said that it was a dreadful thing.


Namun ada beberapa pengecualian.

  • He said, “ thank you.”
  • He thanked me.
  • He said,” congratulations!”
  • He congratulated me.


Yes and No dinyatakan dalam indirect speech dengan :
Subject + auxiliary verb ( modal)
Contoh:

  • He said,” Can you swim?”
  • === He asked me if  I could swim and I said that I couldn’t.
  • He said,” will you have time to do it?” and I said ,”Yes.”
  • === He said if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.


E. Offers ( menawarkan)
Contoh :

  • “Shall I bring you some tea?”
  • === He offered me to bring some tea.
  • “Would you like to accompany me to go to the cinema?”
  • === She offered me to accompany her to go to the cinema.


F. Let’s
Let’s biasanya menyatakan suatu ajakan dan kemudian menjadi suatu saran dalam indirect speech.
Contoh:

  • He said,” let’s leave the case at the station.”
  • === He suggested leaving the case at the station.
  • He suggested that they/ we should leave the case at the station.
  • === He said,” let’s stop now and finish it later.”
  • He suggested stopping then and finish it later.
  • === He suggested that they/ we should stop then and finish it later.

Selamat belajar dan semoga bermanfaat.