Thursday, January 2, 2020

Strategi dan Pembahasan Lengkap Soal Reading Tes Bahasa Inggris (TBI) PKN STAN Terbaru

PKN STAN masih mendominasi jumlah pendaftar sekolah kedinasan terbanyak. Dengan jumlah pendaftar yang membludak, persaingan pun akan semakin berat. Karenanya, berbagai strategi mesti dipersiapkan untuk bisa diterima di sekolah kedianasan tersebut. Cara yang pertama dan utama adalah dengan menyelesaikan soal- soal ujian masuknya dengan baik, artinya, meraih nilai diatas passing grade dan masuk dalam pe-ranking-an sesuai dengan jumlah kuota yang ditetapkan. 

Salah satu mata uji yang dites-kan adalah tes bahasa Inggris (TBI). Sejak 2018 lalu, soal bahasa Inggris PKN STAN terdiri dari 30 (tiga puluh) soal dengan materi grammar (structure and written expression) dan reading text dengan moda Computer Assisted Test (CAT). Soal structure and written expression dan reading text memiliki tipe soal yang berbeda. Soal structure and written expression lebih ke penguasaan grammar praktis sedangkan soal reading text lebih ke pemahaman teks baik secara makna maupun konteks. Untuk soal tipe structure and written expression, bisa dilihat pembahasan materi- materi dan contoh soal melalui blog ini pada menu halaman atas TBI PKN STAN.

Soal teks untuk reading comprehension dalam soal- soal USM PKN STAN biasanya diambil dari berbagai sumber baik website tertentu ataupun dari sumber lain yang relevan misalnya jurnal ilmiah. Sebelum masuk ke dalam soal latihan, berikut ini akan dibahas tentang strategi menyelesaikan soal reading tes bahasa Inggris (TBI) PKN STAN. 

Menentukan Main Idea
Dalam setiap pertanyaan reading, soal yang paling sering muncul adalah tentang menentukan ide utama dalam teks. Main idea/ ide utama merupakan ide yang paling penting dalam sebuah teks atau tentang apakah teks tersebut. Setiap teks memiliki ide utama subordinate. ide utama lebih umum dari supporting ide atau detail dalam sebuah bagian teks.

Ide utama kadang muncul di awal paragraf akan tetapi bisa juga muncul di tengah atau akhir paragraf.

Ketika ide utama dalam sebuah teks itu tidak jelas karena setiap paragraf memiliki poin utama yang berbeda, maka pertanyaan seputar topik utama akan biasa muncul. Berikut ini contoh dari pertanyaan menentukan ide utama,

  • What is the main idea of the passage?
  • What is the main idea expressed in the passage?
  • What does the passage mainly discuss?
  • With what topic is the passage mainly concerned?
  • The main topic of the passage is ....

Contoh soal PMB STAN 2017
Tesla, a Serbian by parentage, began working for the phone company in Budapest. In 1882, he headed for Paris, where he took a job with the Continental Edison Company. He was invited to work stateside after his supervisor wrote a recommendation praising the young man as a genius on par with Edison himself. While he hired Tesla, Edison thought the man's ideas were “splendid” but “utterly impractical.” Edison relied heavily on tedious experimentation for most of his discoveries, a commitment which some historians attribute partially to his lack of formal education. Tesla, in contrast, was an emotionally driven dreamer with years of engineering training, which allowed him to work out theories before physically implementing them. Later in life, each man publicly criticized the other’s work.
At the same point, Tesla insisted that he could increase the efficiency of Edison’s prototypical dynamos, and eventually wore down Edison enough to let him try. Edison, Tesla later claimed, even promised him $50,000 if he succeeded. Tesla worked around the clock for several months and made a great deal of progress. When he demanded his reward, Edison claimed the offer was a joke, saying, “When you become a full-fledged American, you will appreciate an American joke.” Edison offered a $10/week raise, instead. Ever prideful, Tesla quit, and spent the next few months picking up odd jobs across New York City.
Edison's least favorite of Tesla's impractical ideas was the concept of using alternating current (AC) technology to bring electricity to people. Edison insisted that his own direct current (DC) system was superior, in that it maintained a lower voltage from power station to consumer, and was therefore safer. But AC technology, which allows the flow of energy to periodically change direction, is more practical for transmitting massive quantities of energy, as is required by a large city, or hub of industry, say. At the time, DC technology only allowed for a power grid with a one-mile radius from the power source. The conflict between the two methods and their masters came to be known as the War currents. In the end, AC won out. Mostly. Westinghouse fulfilled Tesla’s dream of building a power plant at Niagara Falls to power New York City, and built upon its principles the same system of local power grids we use today 

What is the main idea of the passage?
A. The rivalry between Tesla and Edison
B. The superiority of AC system
C. The invention of AC and DC system
D. The biography of Nikola Tesla

Pembahasan :
Jawaban terbaik adalah (A), The rivalry between Tesla and Edison, karena mengkombinasikan poin utama pada paragraf pertama, kedua dan ketiga.

Strategi Menjawab Main Idea:

  • Main idea tidak selalu muncul pada kalimat pertama dalam sebuah paragraf atau passage. Itu bisa muncul di tengah atau di akhir sebuah paragraf atau passage.
  • Ketika ide utama tidak jelas dalam suatu paragraf karena setiap paragraf memiliki poin utama, maka kombinasikan semua poin utama setiap paragraf untuk mendapatkan main idea.
  • Jawaban untuk main idea harus berkaitan dengan keseluruhan dari teks tersebut, bukan salah satu bagian saja, artinya bagian tersebut disebutkan dalam setiap paragraf yang terdapat dalam teks tersebut.
  • Biasanya, pilihan jawaban yang salah, terdiri dari beberapa opsi ;
  1. Pernyataan benar, akan tetapi hanya terdapat pada satu bagian paragraf saja.
  2. Pernyataan yang terlalu umum
  3. Pernyataan yang berbeda dengan pernyataan yang dinyatakan dalam teks.

Pertanyaan Detail
Pertanyaan detail (detail questions) menanyakan tentang informasi spesifik dalam sebuah teks. Detail questions biasanya dimulai dengan pertanyaan,
According to the passage, ....
Untuk menjawab pertanyaan detail, gunakan kata kunci atau kata tertentu dalam pertanyaan. Gunakan teknik scanning dan temukan kata kunci dalam setiap paragraff dalam teks. Saat kata kunci ditemukan, bacalah seluruh kalimat lengkap sampai menemukan informasi yang tepat.
Perlu diketahui juga bahwa jawaban yang benar atau kata kunci yang ditemukan tidak selalu merupakan kata yang sama, tetapi bisa merupakan persamaan kata atau sinonim atau parafrase dari sebuah kalimat.
Contoh :
Eugene O'Neill was a well-known dramatist, yang dalam teks bisa ditemukan pernyataan yang memiliki makna yang sama yaitu, his plays won him fame.

Pertanyaan detail (Stated Details Questions)
Tipe pertanyaan ini menanyakan tentang detail pertanyaan dalam teks. beberapa pertanyaan yang menyatakan pertanyaan ini adalah seperti,

  • According to the passage ....
  • It is stated in the passage ....
  • The passage indicates that ....
  • Which of the following is true...?
Contoh soal PMB STAN 2017

Tesla, a Serbian by parentage, began working for the phone company in Budapest. In 1882, he headed for Paris, where he took a job with the Continental Edison Company. He was invited to work stateside after his supervisor wrote a recommendation praising the young man as a genius on par with Edison himself. While he hired Tesla, Edison thought the man's ideas were “splendid” but “utterly impractical.” Edison relied heavily on tedious experimentation for most of his discoveries, a commitment which some historians attribute partially to his lack of formal education. Tesla, in contrast, was an emotionally driven dreamer with years of engineering training, which allowed him to work out theories before physically implementing them. Later in life, each man publicly criticized the other’s work.
At the same point, Tesla insisted that he could increase the efficiency of Edison’s prototypical dynamos, and eventually wore down Edison enough to let him try. Edison, Tesla later claimed, even promised him $50,000 if he succeeded. Tesla worked around the clock for several months and made a great deal of progress. When he demanded his reward, Edison claimed the offer was a joke, saying, “When you become a full-fledged American, you will appreciate an American joke.” Edison offered a $10/week raise, instead. Ever prideful, Tesla quit, and spent the next few months picking up odd jobs across New York City.
Edison's least favorite of Tesla's impractical ideas was the concept of using alternating current (AC) technology to bring electricity to people. Edison insisted that his own direct current (DC) system was superior, in that it maintained a lower voltage from power station to consumer, and was therefore safer. But AC technology, which allows the flow of energy to periodically change direction, is more practical for transmitting massive quantities of energy, as is required by a large city, or hub of industry, say. At the time, DC technology only allowed for a power grid with a one-mile radius from the power source. The conflict between the two methods and their masters came to be known as the War currents. In the end, AC won out. Mostly. George Westinghouse, an inventor, entrepreneur, and engineer who had himself been feuding with Edison for years fulfilled Tesla’s dream of building a power plant at Niagara Falls to power New York City, and built upon its principles the same system of local power grids we use today 

According to the text, which one is the advantage of DC system?
A. It maintains a lower voltage from power station to consumer
B. It allows for a power grid with a one-mile radius from the power source
C. It is more practical for transmitting massive quantities of energy

D. It is more economical to be applied.

Pembahasan :
Yang merupakan keuntungan dari sistem DC adalah tepat pada pilihan jawaban A, It maintains a lower voltage from power station to consumer, dinyatakan dalam kalimat kedua paragraf ketiga.

Pertanyaan detail tentang What is Not (Unstated Details)
Tipe pertanyaan ini menanyakan tentang pernyataan apa yang tidak benar dalam teks. Biasanya pertanyaan ini menggunakan kata NOT atau EXCEPT dalam huruf kapital. Contoh pertanyaan yang sering muncul adalah sebagai berikut,

  • Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
  • According to the passage, all of the following are true, EXCEPT....
  • Which one is NOT TRUE ...
Contoh soal PMB STAN 2017

Tesla, a Serbian by parentage, began working for the phone company in Budapest. In 1882, he headed for Paris, where he took a job with the Continental Edison Company. He was invited to work stateside after his supervisor wrote a recommendation praising the young man as a genius on par with Edison himself. While he hired Tesla, Edison thought the man's ideas were “splendid” but “utterly impractical.” Edison relied heavily on tedious experimentation for most of his discoveries, a commitment which some historians attribute partially to his lack of formal education. Tesla, in contrast, was an emotionally driven dreamer with years of engineering training, which allowed him to work out theories before physically implementing them. Later in life, each man publicly criticized the other’s work.
At the same point, Tesla insisted that he could increase the efficiency of Edison’s prototypical dynamos, and eventually wore down Edison enough to let him try. Edison, Tesla later claimed, even promised him $50,000 if he succeeded. Tesla worked around the clock for several months and made a great deal of progress. When he demanded his reward, Edison claimed the offer was a joke, saying, “When you become a full-fledged American, you will appreciate an American joke.” Edison offered a $10/week raise, instead. Ever prideful, Tesla quit, and spent the next few months picking up odd jobs across New York City.
Edison's least favorite of Tesla's impractical ideas was the concept of using alternating current (AC) technology to bring electricity to people. Edison insisted that his own direct current (DC) system was superior, in that it maintained a lower voltage from power station to consumer, and was therefore safer. But AC technology, which allows the flow of energy to periodically change direction, is more practical for transmitting massive quantities of energy, as is required by a large city, or hub of industry, say. At the time, DC technology only allowed for a power grid with a one-mile radius from the power source. The conflict between the two methods and their masters came to be known as the War currents. In the end, AC won out. Mostly. George Westinghouse, an inventor, entrepreneur, and engineer who had himself been feuding with Edison for years fulfilled Tesla’s dream of building a power plant at Niagara Falls to power New York City, and built upon its principles the same system of local power grids we use today 

Which one is NOT TRUE about Nikola Tesla?
A. He worked for Edison's company
B. He built a power plant at Niagara Falls
C. He had a better educational background than Edison
D. He worked out theories before physically implementing them

Pembahasan :
Pilihan A, bukan jawaban yang benar, karena sesuai dengan pernyataan pada paragraf pertama kalimat ketiga. Pilihan B, juga bukan jawaban yang benar karena disebutkan pada paragraf ketiga kalimat terakhir. Pilihan D, dinyatakan dalam paragraf pertama, kalimat keenam "Tesla, in contrast, was an emotionally driven dreamer with years of engineering training, which allowed him to work out theories before physically implementing them.
Pilihan C, tidak diesbutkan dalam teks, sehingga merupakan jawaban yang paling benar.

Strategi Menjawab Detail Questions

  • Tentukan kata kunci dalam pertanyaan
  • Pilih metode skimming untuk mencari kata kunci yang relevan dalam teks
  • Jawaban dari detail questions biasanya merupakan re-statement atau apa yang dinyatakan kembali dalam teks
  • Pada pertanyaan what is not dalam teks, pilihlah pernyataan yang salah  atau tidak benar yang disebutkan dalam teks.

Pertanyaan Reference dan Vocabulary
Pertanyaan reference menanyakan tentang kata- kata rujukan dalam teks, seperti kata ganti (pronoun) "they" "them","it", dll.

Contoh Soal PMB STAN 2017

Pertanyaan rujukan
The word its in line 23 refers to ....
A. New York City
B. Power Plant
C. AC system
D. The combination of AC and DC principles

Pembahasan :
Pilihan yang benar adalah B,  "its"menggantikan Power Plant

Pertanyaan vocabulary
The word tedious in line 5 is closest in meaning to ....
A. diverse
B. dull
C. dynamic
D. tenacious

Pembahasan :
Pilihan jawaban yang paling tepat adalah B, dull, kata tedious berarti membosankan. Kata diverse berarti berbeda, kata dynamic berarti dinamis, dan kata tenacious berarti gigih.

Strategi menjawab pertanyaan Reference dan Vocabulary

  • Dalam menjawab pertanyaan rujukan, berhati- hatilah terhadap noun didekat kata rujukan tersebut. 
  • Kata- kata rujukan bisa muncul sebagai kata benda (noun) atau frase kata benda (noun phrase) 
  • Substitusikan kata rujukan terhadap kata benda yang ditemukan dalam teks apakah kata tersebut cocok atau tidak.
  • Dalam pertanyaan vocabulary, bila tidak dapat menjawab pertanyaan secara konteks, cobalah menebak kata berdasarkan konteks dalam kalimat dengan mencari klue- klue tertentu.
  • Kadang- kadang arti dari sinonim kata tersebut merupakan parafrase dari kata tertentu.
  • Pahami makna kata tersirat sehingga kata tersebut bis muncul setelah memahami isi bacaan.

Pertanyaan Inference
Pertanyaan inference bisa dikatakan sebagai pertanyaan dengan jawaan yang sulit dalam soal reading. Jawaban atas pertanyaan ini tidak langsung dinyatakan dalam paragraf teks akan tetapi bisa saja secara tersirat. Berikut ini contoh pertanyaan reference,

  • Which of the following can be inferred about...?
  • What can be inferred from the passage?
  • From the passage it can be inferred that ....
  • The passage implies that ....
  • The author implies that ....
  • The passage suggests that ....
  • It is most probable that ....

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan inference, kita mesti menyimpulkan fakta- fakta yang dinyatakan dalam teks.

Contoh soal PMB STAN 2017

Tesla, a Serbian by parentage, began working for the phone company in Budapest. In 1882, he headed for Paris, where he took a job with the Continental Edison Company. He was invited to work stateside after his supervisor wrote a recommendation praising the young man as a genius on par with Edison himself. While he hired Tesla, Edison thought the man's ideas were “splendid” but “utterly impractical.” Edison relied heavily on tedious experimentation for most of his discoveries, a commitment which some historians attribute partially to his lack of formal education. Tesla, in contrast, was an emotionally driven dreamer with years of engineering training, which allowed him to work out theories before physically implementing them. Later in life, each man publicly criticized the other’s work.
At the same point, Tesla insisted that he could increase the efficiency of Edison’s prototypical dynamos, and eventually wore down Edison enough to let him try. Edison, Tesla later claimed, even promised him $50,000 if he succeeded. Tesla worked around the clock for several months and made a great deal of progress. When he demanded his reward, Edison claimed the offer was a joke, saying, “When you become a full-fledged American, you will appreciate an American joke.” Edison offered a $10/week raise, instead. Ever prideful, Tesla quit, and spent the next few months picking up odd jobs across New York City.
Edison's least favorite of Tesla's impractical ideas was the concept of using alternating current (AC) technology to bring electricity to people. Edison insisted that his own direct current (DC) system was superior, in that it maintained a lower voltage from power station to consumer, and was therefore safer. But AC technology, which allows the flow of energy to periodically change direction, is more practical for transmitting massive quantities of energy, as is required by a large city, or hub of industry, say. At the time, DC technology only allowed for a power grid with a one-mile radius from the power source. The conflict between the two methods and their masters came to be known as the War currents. In the end, AC won out. Mostly. George Westinghouse, an inventor, entrepreneur, and engineer who had himself been feuding with Edison for years fulfilled Tesla’s dream of building a power plant at Niagara Falls to power New York City, and built upon its principles the same system of local power grids we use today 

What can be inferred from the text?
A. George Westinghouse and Nicola Tesla were best friend
B. George Westinghouse has invented the generator that we use today
C. George Westinghouse admired Edison's work
D. George Westinghouse rarely agreed with Edison

Pembahasan :
Jawaban A merupakan jawaban yang salah karena tidak ada statemen yang mendefinisikan atau mengimplikasikan pernyataan tersebut. Jawaban B, juga bukanlah jawaban yang tepat. Tidak ada pernyataan yang menyebutkan statemen tersebut. Jawaban C, jawaban yang salah, dalam teks disebutkan bahwa Westinghouse dan Edison berselisih. Jawaban D, merupakan jawaban yang tepat karena mengimplikasikan pernyataan yang tepat bahwa Westinghouse dan Edison berselisih dengan kata "rarely agreed" dalam pernyataan.

Strategi menjawab Pernyataan Inference

  • Memahami informasi dalam teks
  • Menuliskan kesimpulan atau implikasi pernyataan dalam teks
  • Jawaban dari pernyataan tidak selalu dinatakan dalam kata-kata atau frase dan kalimat dalam teks.
  • Memilih jawaban yang benar- benar tersirat dalam teks secara logis dan benar

Pertanyaan tujuan penulis (Questions on Main Purpose)
Model perrnyataan ini adalah menanyakan tujuan penulis menulis teks ini. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini, kita bisa menuliskan konklusi yang diambil dari ide utama dan detail- detail informasi tertentu dari teks. Berikut beberapa contoh pertanyaan seputar tujuan penulis.

  • What is the author's main purpose in the passage?
  • The author's purpose in writing is to ...
  • Why did the author write the passage?
Adapun jawaban untuk pertanyaan ini dimulai dengan bentuk infinitive seperti
  • to discuss
  • to mention
  • to persuade
  • to summarize
  • to compare
  • to describe
  • to tell how
  • to distinguish
  • to illustrate
  • to advise
  • to criticize
  • to explain

Strategi menjawab pertanyaan tujuan
  • Perhatikan pada main idea dalam topik kalimat  dan detail informasi yang mendukung ide utama
  • Tuliskan konklusi tentang tujuan penulis
Contoh soal PMB STAN 2017

Also known as Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome, Progeria is an extremely rare genetic disease. In this disease the aging process of the body accelerates mush faster than what is does in normal human. This process of aging gallops to about seven times the normal rate. Because of this, a child of ten years would have a look of 70 years old. he or she may also have similar respiratory, cardiovascular, and arthritic conditions that a 70-year-old would have.
There is no cure for this disease. The exact cause is unknown, but it is believed due to a single abnormal (mutant) gene. Normally for each gene there are two copies, one from each parent. Progeria considered to be result of a dominant mutation because the gene in question has one normal copy and one abnormal copy, as opposed to a recessive mutation in which both copies are abnormal. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic new mutation which happiness at the time of conception.
also known as Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome, Progeria is an extremely rare genetic disease. In this disease the aging process of the body accelerates mush faster than what is does in normal human. This process of aging gallops to about seven times the normal rate. Because of this, a child of ten years would have a look of 70 yyears old. he or she may also have similar respiratory, cardiovascular, and arthritic conditions that a 70-year-old would have.
There is no cure for this disease. The exact cause is unknown, but it is believed due to a single abnormal (mutant) gene. Normally for each gene there are two copies, one from each parent. Progeria considered to be result of a dominant mutation because the gene in question has one normal copy and one abnormal copy, as opposed to a recessive mutation in which both copies are abnormal. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic new mutation which happiness at the time of conception.
Progeria affects between 1 in 8 million (approx.) children, with a total reported incidence of just 100 in the century since it has been identified. There are currently between 30 and 40 known cases worldwide of Progeria. Children from all races and cultures from around the world have been affected.

Because of the lack of specific laboratory test at this time, the diagnosis must be based on the physical appearance of the individual. The diagnosis is usually made in the first or second year of life when skin changes and failure to gain weight become apparent.

The author's main purpose in the passage is to ....
A. show the cause of Progeria Syndrome
B. state the result of Progeria Syndrome research
C. give the samples about the spread of Progeria Syndrome
D. give explanation of Progeria Syndrome

Pembahasan :
Pilihan jawaban yang paling tepat adalah pada pilihan D, tujuan dituliskannya teks ini adalah memberikan penjelasan akan Progeria Syndrome.

Penutup
Demikian pembahasan dan strategi lengkap soal Reading TBI PKN STAN. Semoga ulasan ini bermanfaat bagi adik- adik yang akan mendaftar PKN STAN tahun ini. Untuk latihan soal reading, silahkan klik pada link soal- soal latihan reading TBI PKN STAN materi terbaru dan terupdate 2020. atau klik halaman pada menu TBI PKN STAN untuk materi soal structure grammar.

Salam Sukses selalu.

Sumber referensi tulisan :
  1. Buku Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
  2. Buku The Heinle & Heinle TOEFL Test Assistant Reading
  3. Soal Ujian Masuk PKN STAN tahun 2017

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